Functional Ultrasound Neuroimaging
Functional ultrasound (fUS) is a neuroimaging method that uses ultrasound to track changes in cerebral blood volume as an indirect readout of neuronal activity at high spatiotemporal resolution. fUS is capable of imaging head-fixed or freely behaving rodents and of producing volumetric images of the entire mouse brain. It has been applied to many species, including primates and humans. Now that fUS is reaching maturity, it is being adopted by the neuroscience community. However, the nature of the fUS signal and the different implementations of fUS are not necessarily accessible to nonspecialists. This review aims to introduce these ultrasound concepts to all neuroscientists. We explain the physical basis of the fUS signal and the principles of the method, present the state of the art of its hardware implementation, and give concrete examples of current applications in neuroscience. Finally, we suggest areas for improvement during the next few years.